Clinical trial to assess role of ketamine in post operative analgesia after laparoscopic cholecystectomy


Dr. Mohammad Kheiri Mahmod, Dr. Bashar Naser Hussein, Dr. Ammar Hamid Hanoosh
Anesthetists, M.B.CH.B, DA Higher diploma of anesthesia, AL-Yarmook Teaching hospital, Minstry of health and environment, Baghdad, Iraq.


Background: The physiological consequences of post-operative pain including Stress response to surgery, Respiratory complications, cardiovascular complications, Thromboembolic complications, Gastrointestinal complications, Musculoskeletal complications and Psychological complications, all of which could delay or impair postoperative recovery and increase the economic cost of surgery as a result of the longer period of hospitalization. Inadequate post-operative pain control may also lead to the development of chronic pain after surgery .Aim of This study: is to evaluate the preemptive analgesic effect of intravenous ketamine in laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Patients and Methods: double blinded randomized clinical trial conducted at Al-Yarmouk teaching hospital, over a period of one year from March 2013 to March 2014 on a total of 120 adult patients scheduled for elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy, Patients were divided in to three groups of 40 patients each, the study drug administered intravenously during induction. Groups A and B received ketamine in a dose of 1 and 0.5 mg/kg, respectively, whereas group C received isotonic saline. The degree of pain at rest and deep breathing postoperatively were estimated using VAS, time of first analgesic dose, total opioid consumption, nausea, vomiting and hallucination were recorded for 24 h postoperatively. Results: postoperative pain scores were significantly low in group A when compared with the other groups at most times in the first 24 hours. Highest pain score was in group C at 0 h. Postoperative analgesic consumption was minimum in group A then group B and highest in group C. There was little significant difference in the pain scores between groups B and C. Group A had a significantly higher blood MAP than group B at 0, 0.5 and 1 h. 7.5% incidence of hallucinations were in group A. Conclusion: According to this study we conclude that preemptive ketamine in a dose of 1 mg/kg has a definitive role in reducing postoperative pain and analgesic requirement in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. A low dose of 0.5 mg/kg had little significant in preemptive analgesic effect and in reducing analgesic requirement.