Karma and Phala: Exploring the Ethical and Metaphysical Dimensions of Action and Consequence in Indian Philosophy (Perspectives from Mīmāṃsā, Vedānta, and Nyāya)


Dr. Satish Kumar Tiwari, Assistant Professor
Department of Philosophy, Mahendra Mahila College, Gopalganj, Jai Prakash University, Chapra, Bihar, India.


This paper delves into the complex and multifaceted concepts of karma and phala, examining how three prominent Indian philosophical schools – Mīmāṃsā, Vedānta, and Nyāya – grapple with the nature of action, consequence, and divine intervention. By analyzing the distinct approaches of each tradition, this study reveals profound philosophical debates surrounding human agency, moral order, and the role of the divine in shaping destiny. Through a nuanced exploration of these diverse perspectives, this research highlights the richness and depth of Indian philosophical thought, offering insights into the intricate interplay of ethics, metaphysics, and spirituality that underlies our understanding of karma and phala.