Linear Modeling-Based Assessment Of Water Quality Of River Yamuna, India (2011-2020)


D Pali, SK Singh
Department of Environmental Engineering, Delhi Technological University, Delhi-110042, India.


Since time immemorial, rivers have been the lifelines of billions worldwide. They provide fresh water for drinking, agriculture, bathing, and fulfill our various requirements. There is no life without water; hence, making sure that perennial flows remain unpolluted is one of man’s prime duties. On the contrary, many industrial chemicals that pollute our water resources are common in the present times. The entire stretch of Yamuna River, from Yamunotri glacier to its confluence with the river Ganges at Allahabad, is used for various human activities. The various pollution sources, such as residential, industrial, and agricultural areas, induce many substances in the river. Domestic sources cause about 85% of the total pollution. Large clusters of industries established at Kota, Gwalior, Indore, Nagda, Khetri, Yamuna Nagar, Panipat, Sonepat, Delhi, Baghpat, Ghaziabad, Gautam Budha Nagar, Faridabad, Mathura release vast amounts of pollutants in River Yamuna. The nutrients and pesticides from agricultural fields are adsorbed by the sediment particles and reach the river, particularly during early floods. These chemicals geo-accumulate in riverbeds. The dumping of worshiping material and ashes in the water further degrades the water quality. High organic content, increased nutrients, pathogens, pollutants, and deforestation in the catchment and river usage as transport media adversely affect the river water quality. Many activities such as bathing, washing clothes, religious activities, offering of flowers, garlands, and other worship materials are also responsible for river pollution in India. This paper studies the effect of pollution on the River Yamuna and concentrates on studying water quality parameters of the entire stretch of River Yamuna flowing through five geopolitical states of India. The second part deals with the study of pollution-induced by various drains emptying their flow into River Yamuna. It also includes a study during the extraordinary condition induced by COVID-19 lockdown.