Opportunistic Infection among HIV Patients

Authors

Pawar Tanaya, Sarode Mayur, Ade Akshay, Dhole Archana, Magdum Chandrakant, Yeligar Veerendra.
Rajarambapu College of Pharmacy, Kasegaon.

Abstract

AIDS is a disease caused by HIV. Enhanced obtainability and availability of ART (Anti-retroviral Therapy) has basically enhanced the survival rate, by minimizing the frequency of opportunistic infection among people living with HIV/AIDS. Opportunistic infections are defined as infections that are more and more severe because of immune suppression in HIV-infected patients and they are the main clinical manifestation of HIV patients. Opportunistic infection increases the probability of death in HIV patients. It is a worldwide public health challenge in the lack of vaccine and curative therapy. Exposure of potential pathogens and virulence of the pathogen, degree of host immunity, use of antimicrobial prophylaxis, immune-compromised diseases are the main factors responsible for opportunistic infection in a patient with HIV. Most common opportunistic infections include oral candidiasis, tuberculosis, cryptococcal meningitis, cryptosporidiosis, pneumonia, herpes zoster, toxoplasmosis, chronic diarrhoea, sepsis, genital herpes, genital wart. The introduction of HAART has led to an evidential reduction in AIDS-linked morbidity and mortality. This review represents factors responsible for the development of opportunistic infection in the patient with HIV, various opportunistic infections, its diagnosis, symptoms, management, and prevention.